The Chapters

The Chapters

Note: Chapter outlines are subject to change

Chapter One: Introduction to Biological Anthropology

Authors: Beth Shook, Katie Nelson, Kelsie Aguilera, Lara Braff

  1. Introduction
  2. What is anthropology?
  3. A brief history of anthropology
  4. The four subfields
  5. Anthropological approaches
  6. What is biological anthropology?
    • The scope of biological anthropology
  7. Anthropologists as scientists
    • Recognizing science
    • How science works: The scientific method
    • Hypotheses, theories, and laws
  8. Ways of knowing: science, faith, and anthropology

Chapter Two: Evolution

Author: Jonathan Marks

  1. Introduction
  2. The science of who we are and where we come from
  3. Pre-Darwinian intellectual trends
  4. The transmutation hypothesis
  5. Post-Darwinian theories and disputes
  6. Molecular evolution
  7. Organismal and multi-level evolution
  8. The biopolitics of heredity
  9. Adaptation and adaptationism
  10. Misconceptions about human evolution

Chapter Three: Fundamentals of Molecular Biology and Genetics

Authors: Hayley Mann, Malaina Gaddis, Xazmin Lowman

  1. Introduction
  2. Cells and molecules
  3. Introduction to genetics
    • SPECIAL TOPICS: Genetic regulation of the lactase (LCT) gene
  4. DNA replication and cell division
  5. Polygenic traits
  6. Genomics and epigenetics
    • SPECIAL TOPICS: Epigenetics and X chromosome inactivation
  7. Genetic Testing

Chapter Four: Forces of Evolution

Author: Andrea Alveshere

  1. Introduction
  2. The modern synthesis
    • Historical framework
    • Tying it all together
  3. Population genetics
    • Defining populations and the variations within them
    • Defining evolution
  4. The forces of evolution
    • Mutation
    • Genetic drift
    • Gene flow
    • Natural selection
  5. Studying evolution in action
    • Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
    • Interpreting evolutionary change
    • Micro- to macroevolution
  6. SPECIAL TOPICS: Interesting Fact

Chapter Five: Meet the Living Primates

Author: Stephanie Etting

  1. Introduction
  2. What is a primate?
    • Learning from primates
    • SPECIAL TOPICS: Primates in culture and religion
    • Types of traits
    • Primate suite of traits
    • Ways of organizing taxa
  3. Key traits used to identify primates
    • Dental traits
    • Sensory adaptations
    • Behavioral adaptations
    • Locomotor adaptations
  4. Primate diversity
    • Suborder Strepsirrhini
    • Suborder Haplorrhini
  5. Conclusion

Chapter Six: Primate Ecology and Behavior

Author: Karin Jaffe

  1. Introduction
  2. Ecology
    • Primate diets
    • Competition for food
    • Community ecology
  3. SPECIAL TOPICS:: Primate conservation
  4. Sociality, residency patterns, & dispersal
    • Why do primates live in groups?
    • Dispersal: Who goes and who stays?
  5. Reproductive strategies
    • Female reproductive strategies
    • Male reproductive strategies
    • Social and mating systems
  6. Communication
    • Forms of communication
  7. The question of culture
    • Examples of culture in primates

Chapter Seven: Understanding the Fossil Context

Authors: Sarah King, Lee Anne Zajic

  1. Fossil study: An evolving process
    • Mary Anning and the age of wonder
    • Developing modern methods
  2. Earth: It’s older than dirt
  3. Fossils: Preserving prehistoric life
    • Geological processes
    • Taphonomy
    • Types of fossils
    • SPECIAL TOPICS: Laetoli footprints
  4. Voices from the past: What fossils can tell us
    • Dating methods
    • Environmental reconstruction
    • SPECIAL TOPICS: Cold Case Naia
  5. Summary

Chapter Eight: Primate Evolution

Authors: Jonathan Perry, Stephanie Canington

  1. Introduction
    • Major hypotheses about primate origins
    • Major phases of early primate evolution
  2. The origin of primates
    • Paleocene: Mammals in the wake of dinosaur extinctions
  3. Plesiadapiforms, the archaic primates
  4. Euprimates, the true primates
  5. The emergence of modern primate groups
    • Climate change and the paleogeography of modern primate origins
    • Competing hypotheses for the origin of anthropoids
    • Early anthropoid fossils in Africa
    • Early anthropoid fossils in Asia
    • Origins of Crown Strepsirrhines
    • The fossil record of tarsiers
    • Platyrrhine dispersal to South America
  6. Planet of the Apes
    • Geologic activity and climate change in the Miocene
    • Geographic distribution: Africa, Asia, Europe
    • Where are the monkeys? Old World monkey diversity in the Miocene
    • The origins of extant apes

Chapter Nine: Early Hominins

Authors: Lindsay Hunter, Silindokuhle Mavuso, Kimberleigh Tommy, Nomawethu Hlazo, Rosa Moll

  1. Defining Hominins
  2. Ancestral and Derived Traits
  3. Palaeoenvironment
  4. Geology
  5. Locomotion: Bipedalism
  6. Hominin Dentition
  7. Early Hominins: Sahelanthropus, Orrorin, Ardipithecus
  8. Genus Australopithecus (including the robust australopithecines/Paranthropus)
  9. Early Tool Use and Technology

Chapter 10: Early Homo

Author: Bonnie Yoshida

  1. What is the genus Homo?
  2. The Homo habilis model of early Homo
  3. The problems of diversity: Single vs. multiple lineages of early ​Homo
  4. Tool use and technology
  5. Changing environments and ecology in early ​Homo
  6. Mosaic evolution and the temporal context of early ​Homo
  7. Homo erectus ​and the human Pleistocene niche

Chapter 11: Archaic Homo

Author: Amanda M. Wolcott Paskey, AnnMarie Beasley Cisneros

  1. Ecological context: Pleistocene
  2. Human lineage: taxonomic, behavioral, technological, and cultural diversity from Lower to Middle Pleistocene, as well as early models of dispersal
    • Origins of Homo sapiens
    • Neanderthals
    • Homo naledi
    • Homo floresiensis

Chapter 12: Modern Homo sapiens

Author: Keith Chan

  1. Introduction
  2. Defining modernity
    • Skeletal traits
    • Behavioral modernity
  3. First Africa, then the world
    • The start of modern Homo sapiens in Africa
    • Expansion into the Middle East and Asia
    • Crossing to Australia
    • Northwest to Europe
    • Distant Relations: Interbreeding with Archaic humans outside Africa
    • African developments
    • Discovering the Americas
    • The big picture: The assimilation model
    • Highlight: “Cavemen” in popular cultures
  4. The chain reaction of agriculture
    • The foraging tradition
    • Why agriculture?
    • Agriculture around the world
    • Cultural effects of agriculture
    • The future of humanity
  5. Conclusion

Chapter 13: Race and Human Variation

Author: Michael Rivera

  1. Introduction
  2. The history of ‘Race’ Concepts
    • ‘Race’ in the classical era
    • ‘Race’ during the scientific revolution
    • ‘Race’ and the dawn of scientific racism
    • ‘Race’ and the beginnings of physical anthropology
  3. Human Variation in biological anthropology today
    • ‘Populations’ instead of ‘races’
    • Human variation is clinal/continuous (not discrete)
    • The apportionment of human variation: genetic diversity is greater within-group than between-group
    • Biological data fit Isolation-by-Distance and Out-of-Africa models
    • Humans have higher homogeneity compared to many other species
    • Phenotypic traits that reflect neutral evolution
    • Phenotypic traits that reflect natural selection
  4. Talking about human biological variation going forward

Chapter 14: Human Variation: An Adaptive Significance Approach

Author: Leslie Fitzpatrick

  1. Introduction
  2. Stress and homeostasis
  3. Adjustments and Adaptations
    • Adjustments
      • Behavioral adjustments
      • Acclimatory adjustments: Thermal stressors
      • Acclimatory adjustments: Altitudinal stressors
      • Developmental adjustments
    • Adaptations
      • Adaptation: Altitudinal adaptation
      • Adaptation: Skin tone
      • Adaptation: Infectious disease
      • Adaptation: Lactase persistence
      • Human variation: Our story continues

Chapter 15: Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology

Authors: Ashley Kendell, Alex Perrone, Colleen Milligan

  1. Bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology
    • Bioarchaeology
    • Forensic anthropology
  2. Skeletal analysis
    • Is it bone?
    • Is it human?
    • Is it modern or archaeological?
    • How many individuals are present?
    • Biological profile
      • Estimating sex
      • Estimating age
      • Estimating stature
      • Estimating ancestry
      • Identification using individualizing characteristics
      • Trauma analysis
      • Bone pathology
    • Taphonomy
  3. Ethics and human rights
    • Working with human remains
    • Acting as an expert in the medicolegal system

Chapter 16: Contemporary Topics:  Human Biology and Health

Author: Joylyn Namie

  1. Introduction
  2. Pre-Agricultural humans
    • Diet
    • Physical activity patterns
    • Infectious disease
    • Health profiles
  3. Health consequences of the transition to agriculture and animal domestication
  4. Epidemiological transitions
  5. Obesity
    • Causes of obesity
  6. Special Topic: Diabetes
  7. Cardiovascular disease
  8. Osteoarthritis
  9. Cancer
  10. Special Topic: The paleo diet
  11. Stress
  12. Are we still evolving?
  13. Food for though

Appendix A: Osteology

Authors: Jason Organ, Jessica Byram

  1. Anatomical terminology
    • Directional terms
  2. Skeletal form and function
    • Structure and material of bone
    • Bone shape
    • Bone formation
    • Bone function
  3. Human skeletal system
    • Axial skeleton
    • Appendicular skeleton
  4. Comparative skeletal anatomy
  5. Bone construction, function, structure, and classification (all brief)
  6. Directional terms/anatomical planes
  7. The elements of the skeleton
  8. How function is informed from form
  9. Key bony markings
  10. Chimpanzee and human comparison

Appendix B: Primate Conservation

Authors: Mary P. Dinsmore, Ilianna E. Anise, Rebekah J. Ellis, Amanda J. Hardie, Jacob Kraus, Karen B. Strier

  1. Introduction
  2. Current conservation status of non-human primates
    • Diversity of primates
    • International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
    • Identifying priorities in primate conservation
  3. Threats to primates
    • Hunting, poaching, and wildlife trade
    • Habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation
    • Climate change
    • Disease
    • Extinction vortex
  4. Primate Significance
    • Ecological significance of primates
    • Bio-anthropological significance of primates
    • Cultural significance of primates
    • Economic significance of primates
  5. What can be done?
    • Role of research
    • NGOs and community based conservation work
    • What can readers of this book do?
  6. Future perspectives

Appendix C: Human Behavioral Ecology

Author: Kristin Snopkowski

  1. Introduction
    • Evolutionary history
    • Ecology
    • Both genes and environment
  2. How can human behavioral ecology help us understand altruism?
    • Kin selection
    • Reciprocal altruism
    • The “Show Off” hypothesis
  3. Main research areas of Human Behavioral Ecology
    • How does human behavioral ecology fit within the anthropology subfields and link to other disciplines?
    • What are the common misunderstandings about Human Behavioral Ecology?
  4. How can Human Behavioral Ecology help us understand the world?